2019/7/18  
英文 English 
Fine particulate matter is a hidden killer that affects everyone (2015/07/26)

Last week we discussed the problem of fine particulate matter. This type of pollution, which measures 2.5 micrometers or less in diameter, is invisible to the naked eye but can do unimaginable harm to the body. It’s important to know how to protect oneself from this invisible killer.

During rush hour, there is heavy scooter congestion on bridges throughout Taipei. According to statistics from the Environmental Protection Administration, there’s one scooter or motorcycle for every 1.6 people in Taiwan, giving Taiwan the highest scooter density in the world. It’s easy to understand how scooter exhaust affects us all.

There are four members of Mrs. Lin’s family. After moving to Xinzhuang 12 years ago, the biggest change they noted was not the high-rise buildings but the expressways in front of their apartment.

Mrs. Lin
Xinzhuang Resident
Many people ride scooters and motorcycles to reach work in the Wugu Industrial Park. For this reason, I don’t dare open my windows. It’s hard to imagine how bad it would be for all this exhaust to enter our apartment.

Exhaust from vehicles contains sulfur oxide, nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide and fine particulate matter, which is an invisible killer.

Candice Lung
Academia Sinica Research Fellow
What‘s so terrible about fine particulate matter? Basically, it’s less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter. When it’s suspended in the air it’s invisible.

In general, particles that are larger than 10 micrometers in diameter will be stopped by the nasal cavity. Suspended particulate matter between 2.5 and 10 micrometers could enter the respiratory tract. Particulate matter below 2.5 micrometers travels to the bronchial and alveolar part of the lungs, potentially entering the bloodstream.

Yeh Guang-peng
Taiwan Healthy Air Alliance Founder
PM2.5 is the most worrisome because it can cause inflammation throughout the body. If it enters the blood and circulates through the heart, it may even cause hardening of the arteries and thrombosis, potentially leading to cardiovascular changes and heart disease. If it gets to blood vessels in the brain, it may cause a stroke or dementia.

Cheng Tsun-jen
NTU Public Health Professor
The World Health Organization and the International Agency on Cancer Research have identified air pollution and in particular PM2.5 as a class one carcinogen.

Cheng Tsun-jen, a professor at National Taiwan University’s College of Public Health, has been studying the effects of PM2.5 on the human body. Cheng’s team recently conducted a three-month trial on mice.

Cheng Tsun-jen
NTU Public Health Professor
Some mice were exposed to outside air and others were given air that has been filtered for PM2.5. After three months, we found that those which (breathed air with PM2.5) suffered some inflammation of their myocardium and heart.

The EPA set up 76 air monitoring stations across Taiwan. Air quality conditions can be easily ascertained by referring to this computer display.

But some feel that this data may not reflect real conditions.

Yeh Guang-peng
Taiwan Healthy Air Alliance Founder
Most of these monitoring stations are located at elementary schools, middle schools, kindergartens or public institutions. But we typically don’t walk past these buildings, so the samples won’t compare to what we experience by the side of the road.

Some 60 air quality monitoring stations measure general air quality. Only six are dedicated to monitoring traffic.

Hsieh Bing-huei
EPA Air Quality Section
We don’t have enough monitoring stations measuring traffic because there are technical difficulties with putting stations beside streets, such as traffic safety considerations. These are all important factors that we need to address. I believe we should encourage county and city governments to discuss the need to establish such monitoring stations.

In metropolitan areas, some believe that regulations regarding engine emissions may be too loose.

Yeh Guang-peng
Taiwan Healthy Air Alliance Founder
Car idling produces air pollution. In Canada, you have 10 seconds to turn off the engine, but in Taiwan it’s three minutes, which is 18 times longer.

Hsieh Bing-huei
EPA Air Quality Section
(Idling) is determined by the driver. In the future, we hope that new cars will control this function automatically by turning off the engine after a certain amount of time.

Some worry that the government’s approach to preventing fine particulate matter is too lax. It may become more important for individuals to take a personal interest in pollution. Experts recommend that people consult air quality readings and forecasts before deciding to wear a mask or participate in athletic activities.

Cheng Tsun-jen
NTU Public Health Professor
Riding a bicycle (outdoors) is good for one’s cardiovascular system, but when these fine particles are sucked into the body, there could be a negative effect. When air pollution is bad, it’s best not to undertake this kind of exercise.

Before going out, consult not only the weather forecast but also pollution levels. Be aware of the dangers of fine particulate matter contained in the haze of pollution which surrounds us.
中文 Chinese  
隱形殺手的真面目

上禮拜,我們談到空氣汙染全台嚴重的空汙問題,今天我們要帶您來認識幾乎無所不在細懸浮微粒PM2.5,一般肉眼根本看不到的PM2.5,能夠長驅直入人體,您我的傷害超乎想像。輕微可能引發過敏、氣喘,嚴重的話,會造成全身各器官的發炎,甚至會引發癌症。面對這可怕的隱形殺手,我們該如何自保呢?

每天上班時間,台北橋上都會出現機車大隊,根據環保署統計,全台平均1.6人就有一台機車,密度居全球之冠,不意外地,機車排放出來的廢氣,也正毒害著我們每一個人。

林太太一家四口,搬到新莊已經12年,說到住家周邊最大的變化,就是多了幾棟高樓大廈,以及眼前的快速道路。

[[林太太居民 新北市新莊區]]
“要去五股工業區上班的摩托車,特別的多,所以平常根本不敢開窗戶,因為整個烏煙瘴氣上來,你不敢去想像,空氣進來的味道會是什麼樣”

汽機車排放的廢氣中,包含硫氧化物、氮氧化物、一氧化碳等汙染源,包覆這些汙染源的「細懸浮微粒」PM2.5,成為空氣中最可怕的隱形殺手。

[[龍世俊 研究員 中研院環境變遷研究中心]]
“為什麼這細懸浮微粒這麼可怕,最主要是因為細懸浮微粒,它其實是粒徑小於2.5微米的,懸浮在空氣中的小粒子,粒徑太小,以致於我們根本看不見”

一般來說,大於10微米的懸浮微粒,會被鼻腔擋下來,PM10到2.5之間的懸浮微粒,會進入呼吸道,至於粒徑小於PM2.5的微粒則會長驅直入,來到肺部支氣管末端的肺泡裡,甚至進入血液循環系統

[[葉光芃發起人 台灣健康空氣行動聯盟]]
“PM2.5最恐怖的是,它進去會引起全身的發炎反應,如果隨著血液循環到心臟,可能造成心血管硬化、血栓,可能心血管變化,可能造成心臟病,如果走去腦血管,可能引起腦部的,甚至中風,可能癡呆”

[[鄭尊仁 教授 台大公衛學院]]
“世界衛生組織,國際癌症研究總署,他們也把空氣汙染物,特別是PM2.5,列為人類的第一級致癌物”

PM2.5對人體有什麼影響,台大公衛學院教授鄭尊仁組成研究團隊,花了三個月的時間,試圖從老鼠身上,找出答案。

[[鄭尊仁 教授 台大公衛學院]]
“有一部分老鼠是吸到外面全部的空氣,另外一個部分是有過濾過PM2.5的,經過三個月之後,我們看到的是,(有吸到PM2.5)老鼠的心肌,心臟的肌肉上有一些發炎的現象。”

監測空氣汙染的嚴重性,政府也不是沒有作為,環保署在全台灣,設置76座的空氣品質監測站,全台的空氣品質狀況,透過電腦一目了然。

但是這數據已經反映,最真實的情況嗎?

[[葉光芃發起人 台灣健康空氣行動聯盟]]
“我們一般監測站,大部分都設在國小、國中、幼稚園,或是公家機構的樓上,不是我們一天到晚在路邊行走的品質。

空氣品質監測站中,60座屬於一般空氣品質監測站,而交通品質監測站只有6座。

[[謝炳輝副處長 環保署空保處]]
“交通測站的數量,比較不是那麼足夠,因為會碰到比較大的困難,因為它設在路邊,有時候用地取得跟交通安全,這個會比較有一些需要去考量,所以我現在也有在檢討,也鼓勵地方縣市政府覺得有需要,這個我們會協助地方政府來設置

不但交通空氣品質監測站的數量太少,針對都會區,最主要的汙染源,汽機車排放廢氣的法令規範,也被詬病太寬鬆

[[葉光芃發起人 台灣健康空氣行動聯盟]]
“車怠速就會產生污染,加拿大是10秒要關引擎,台灣是3分鐘,差了18倍”

[[謝炳輝副處長 環保署空保處]]
“(怠速)目前以勸導為主,另外對於未來希望是新的車子,自己本身就有這樣功能,怠速的時候會自動熄火”

對PM2.5的防範,政策面過於消極被動,個人自保更顯重要,專家建議參考當天空氣品質預報,指標過高,除了出門要把口罩戴好,運動也要慎選時機。

[[鄭尊仁 教授 台大公衛學院]]
“(戶外)騎腳踏車對於心血管是好的,但是微粒吸進去的時候,這個部分對於心血管,又是負面的影響。空氣汙染情況嚴重的時候,事實上最好是選擇,不要去做這種運動會比較好

以前出門運動只要看天氣,現在還要看空氣,PM2.5過去是陌生名詞,如今卻變成每天出門前必看的數字,抬頭看一看天空,似乎又是霧茫茫的一片,你,準備好了嗎?
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