2019/7/18  
英文 English 
People of central Taiwan left waiting for the government to fight air pollution (2015/07/19)

Residents of central Taiwan have suffered from poor air quality for quite some time, due to both topography and local industry. While the Yunlin county government passed autonomous regulations to prohibit the burning of heavily polluting coals, the legislation is unlikely to withstand a challenge from the central government. People anxious about their health are left to wonder when real changes will be made.

At 7 in the morning, dozens of primary school students gather outside Mailiao’s Kongfang Temple to board buses. Their school is located some 6 kilometers away.

This is Ciaotou Elementary School’s Syucuo branch, which was built by Formosa Plastics. It sits just 900 meters away from Formosa Plastics Group’s Sixth Naptha Cracker factory. The National Health Research Institutes found that students here had at least double the amount of thiodiglycolic acid in their urine when compared to other elementary school students.

The Ministry of Education worried these children faced an increased cancer risk. It sent an emergency notification to teachers and students telling them to evacuate the new campus, which was used for just one year, and relocate back to the main campus.

Upon entering the campus, one notices that all teachers and students wear a mask, in accordance with school regulations.

An EPA website announced today's air quality had reached "extremely dangerous" levels. Many are surprised that the school can be affected by air pollution, despite being located 6 kilometers away from the industrial zone.

The Sixth Naphtha Cracker Facility has transformed Yunlin from an agricultural county to one that is facing major air pollution problems. Among the problems are chemicals, heavy metals, and fine particulate matter, which is an invisible threat to human health.

Chuang Bing-chieh
Chung Hsing University Professor
Particulate matter that is less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter is especially dangerous. It’s one-28th the size of human hair and even smaller than bacteria. Your nose is unable to stop it from entering the alveoli of your lungs. It then dissolves into your circulatory system.

Yeh Guang-peng
Taiwan Healthy Air Alliance Physician
In 1980, Taipei’s lung cancer mortality rate was relatively high but has now fallen. Whether it’s incidence or mortality rates, the opposite seems to be happening in Changhua, Yunlin and Chiayi.

According to simulation models from Chuang Bing-chieh, a professor at National Chung Hsing University, the main culprits for poor air quality are Yunlin’s Sixth Naphtha Cracker facility and a Taichung incinerator.

Voice of Chuang Bing-chieh
Chung Hsing University Professor
When it’s 6, 7 or 8 in the morning, (Yunlin) has high (air pollution) concentrations. Then, slowly from 9, 10, and 11 it blows over to Chiayi. It’s typical for Chiayi to receive a purple air quality warning.

Dr. Yu Shang-ru lives in Chiayi City. Every morning when he wakes up he goes to his roof with a camera to observe Chiayi’s air quality.

Yu Shang-ru
Chiayi PM2.5 Self-Help Association
Today is pretty good because you can see houses far away, such those three buildings. Closer, you can see this row, and over there you can see the street and the characters on those signs. These are some of our observation markers.

Growing up as a child in Chiayi, Yu always felt that the air was good and fresh, but now he feels differently.

Yu Shang-ru
Chiayi PM2.5 Self-Help Association
One day I left home to go to work. I looked out to my right and discovered that I could only see the bottom floors of the department store. To the left, those buildings and that faraway road were hazy. You couldn’t see vehicles on either. At noon, it continued. It became clear that this was not fog but air pollution.

In the Yunlin, Chiayi and Nantou area, the central mountain range acts as a barrier that prevents the dispersion of pollutants. This is said to account for 30 percent of the pollution in Chiayi and Nantou, with the remaining 70 percent being directly attributed to local residents.

Chou Yi-hsiung
Puli Township Chief
Our restaurants, hotels and laundries all use diesel furnaces along with oil. This is one source of pollution. On holidays, there’s heavy traffic on Lake Road and National Freeway No. 6. These transit corridors are another source of pollution.

Additionally, Puli has the highest density of temples in Taiwan. The burning of ghost money and firecrackers are yet more sources of air pollution.

Chen Chao-wei
Puli Nanmen Neighborhood Chief
Some believe it is their duty to burn ghost money. If they don’t, it indicates a lack of respect for the Land God Temple.

On April 18, thousands of residents took to the streets of Puli to protest worsening air pollution. It was the first such demonstration of its kind in Taiwan.

Meanwhile in Chiayi, Yu Shang-ru held the first training camp for those interested in learning more about air pollution.

And Yunlin County Council passed the first autonomous regulation banning the use of bituminous coal and petroleum coke. While the central government overruled the local regulation by citing authority over energy policy, it was an important first step in giving citizens the right to enjoy clean air.
中文 Chinese  
工廠現形記

長期飽受空氣汙染之苦的雲林,在最近由縣議會通過了「境內禁止使用生媒及石油焦自治條例草案」。因為多位學者研究發現,台塑六輕等等工廠,長期以石油焦和生煤當作燃料,不但造成重金屬污染,也讓臨近地區的PM2.5細懸浮微粒數值一直處於高檔,附近學校學生得戴著口罩上課,甚至影響到其它縣市的空氣品質。

早上七點,雲林麥寮許厝寮福興宮,湧進數十位橋頭國小學童,準備等車上學。他們的學校,遠在六公里外。

原本這些學童就讀的橋頭國小許厝新分校,是由台塑興建,離六輕工廠僅有900公尺,國家衛生研究院調查發現,這裡的學童,尿液中體內代謝的「硫代二乙酸」是其它國小的兩倍。

教育部擔心增加學童罹癌風險,於是緊急通知師生,撒離才使用一年的新校區,全部搬回校本部。

一進到校園,全校師生,個個被校方要求戴起口罩。

因為環保署網站已公告,今天的空氣品質,已達到環保署所訂定-「極危險」空污等級。令人驚訝,即便離工業區六公里遠,空汙依舊在影響範圍。

雲林地區,在台塑六輕的引領進駐後,由農業縣,成了工業大縣,空污問題也是必須面臨的嚴峻挑戰。其中,包覆化學和重金屬物質的細懸浮微粒PM2.5,對人體的傷害最無形。

[[中興大學環工系教授 莊秉潔]]
“因為它的粒徑到25微米以下,小到已經到頭髮的28分之一,比細菌還要來的小,所以變成這麼小的粒徑,你的鼻毛擋不住,它甚至可以進到你的肺泡,甚至溶解到你的血液循環系統裡面”

[[台灣健康空氣行動聯盟醫師 葉光芃]]
”1980年的時候,台北市肺癌死亡率比較高,但現在都已經下降了,現在不管是發生率還是死亡率,我看都發生在彰化、雲林、跟嘉義”

根據中興大學莊秉潔教授的風向圖模擬,空汙兇手指向,雲林六輕和台中火力發電廠等,空污大戶。

[[聲音來源:莊秉潔教授 中興大學環工系]]
“在白天的時候,這是清晨6點鐘、7點、8點,(雲林)很高的(空汙)濃度,就慢慢地在9點、10點、11點,就整個吹到嘉義來了,這是一個滿典型的,嘉義紫爆的一種情境”

住在嘉義市的醫師余尚儒,每天早上起床的第一件事,就是拿著相機到自家屋頂,觀察今天嘉義空氣的品質,好不好。

[[余尚儒醫師 嘉義PM2.5自救會]]
“今天算是很好了,因為可以看到遠方那個房子,就是那三棟,比較近的這裡也有一排,再往旁邊可以看到街道,招牌上面會有字,這些都是我們觀測的(標的物)”

從小在嘉義長大的余尚儒說,印象中的家鄉,空氣很清新,現在卻不一樣了。

[[余尚儒醫師 嘉義PM2.5自救會]]
“我那一天就是從這邊出門,要上班,就往右邊一看,結果發現只看到它下面那幾層百貨公司,上面就都看不到了,左邊那個大樓也看不清楚,遠遠的路,車輛也都看不清楚,到了中午的時候還是一樣,那個就不是霧,那個就是空氣污染”

雲林、嘉義、南投地區,因為中央山脈的阻擋,擴散條件不良的時候,污染物就容易滯留。只是嘉義跟南投的境外污染物,只佔了三成因素,另外七成的空污兇手,其實是自己人。

[[周義雄鎮長 南投縣埔里鎮]]
“我們的小吃店,包括飯店業者,洗衣業者,燒鍋爐用柴油、用重油,這個都是污染源之一。每逢假日中潭公路,國道六號必塞無疑,這些大眾運輸系統,所排放出來的廢氣,也是污染源之一”

埔里鎮廟寺密度,位居全台之冠,廟會繞境、放鞭炮、燒紙錢,這些都是埔里「自產」的空污來源。

[[陳昭維里長 南投埔里南門里]]
“有某些人士,他認為說一定要燒金紙,沒有燒金紙,好像對土地公廟不尊敬”

2015年4月18日,為了抗議空氣污染,上千位埔里居民走上街頭,創下了國內第一個,為反空污遊行的紀錄。

而嘉義,在余尚儒醫師的奔走下,也開辦了全國第一次的,空污防護講師培訓營

雲林縣議會則是通過了「境內禁止使用生媒及石油焦自治條例草案」,不惜與屬於中央的能源分配權對抗,為的就是能還給人民一個呼吸的權力。
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