Indigenous tribespeople look to pass on traditional culture (2011/12/18)
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  • 英文 English 
    Indigenous tribespeople look to pass on traditional culture (2011/12/18)

    The movie “Seediq Bale” has sparked a mini-revival for Taiwan’s indigenous culture. While the film was a big hit, members of the seediq tribe are still trying to preserve their fading traditions. Tonight we give you Part 2 of a story on they’re trying to keep their identify alive.

    Faced with the disappearance of their culture, the younger generations of Taiwan’s indigenous people often have mixed and contradictory values. Searching for their roots directly from elder tribespeople has become the most direct way to learn their tribe’s dances and songs. Weng Chih-wen翁志文has been slowly learning Seediq traditions from his elders for eight years.

    Weng Chih-wen
    Seediq Dance Choreographer
    When you go to the tribal villages almost no one sings these traditional songs. It’s a shame.

    Whenever Weng has spare time he visits his tribe. In addition to his work in music and dance, this fieldwork takes up almost all his time. It takes much effort to get from recording something to learning how to do it himself.

    Weng Chih-wen
    Seediq Dance Choreographer
    It’s not that the elderly are unable to teach these songs and dances. It’s just that in the past, they didn’t have to make a special effort. You have to just sit beside them and then go back home and teach yourself.

    Ho Hsu Hsiu-chu
    Renai Township Village Elder
    I want to say something. Ever since I was young, my mother taught me to sing traditional folk songs. I was very serious about learning them. I am old now, but don’t look at my age. I can still sing the traditional songs that my mother taught me.

    Indigenous Dancer
    My feeling is that she uses all of her energy to tell these stories. When I see how much this elderly woman wants to tell us these stories from long ago, it’s very touching.

    In the movie “Seediq Bale,” the music played at a wedding on a Tayal Jew’s harp was a tune that Weng Chih-nan翁志文learned from a tribal elder many years earlier and recorded. You could call it authentic Seediq music.

    Weng Chih-wen
    Seediq Dance Choreographer
    The song that I played on my Jew’s harp was recorded. Then, a few years ago it was released and director Wei Te-sheng heard it. He liked the melody and the Jew’s harp sound. We put it in the movie because he thought that scene was suited to that piece of music.

    Weng Chih-wen
    Seediq Dance Choreographer
    In the beginning, I thought that was the only type of Jew’s harp. Later, when we were doing fieldwork, we asked these elderly tribespeople and they said that wasn’t the case. So one difficulty is expressing the true meaning of a Tayal Jew’s harp.

    The table is filled with different types of Tayal Jew’s harps from tribes in Taiwan and overseas. It is like a mini exhibition.

    Weng Chih-wen
    Seediq Dance Choreographer
    The Jew’s harp from the Seediq tribe is made of flat bamboo pieces. There is also the reed made from a flat piece of copper along with two-reed and four-reed versions. A hole is dug here. Then, the copper pieces are put inside and pressed down into the bamboo, which is tied into position so it vibrates. The mouth is the speaker for the sounds created by the vibrations.

    The movie “Seediq Bale” has popularized the saying “cut the grass.” But in the eyes of the Seediq people, this has a deep spiritual meaning. Weng Chih-nan翁志文has never played a tune on the Seediq hunting flute because it’s against the tribe’s traditions.

    Weng Chih-wen
    Seediq Dance Choreographer
    According to the rules of our “gaya,” children and women must not touch this thing. Only those who have hunted can play this flute.

    Because only hunters are permitted to play the hunting flute, we were unable to hear it being played.

    On the day that FTV’s team was there, Weng Chih-nan was scheduled to perform in Puli. Onstage, Weng put plenty of energy into singing and dancing the songs of his ancestors. Offstage when teaching children to dance, he passes on the teachings of his ancestors.

    In June 2011, Weng cooperated with Kumu Walis in Puli to perform the Seediq tribe’s creation story, the “Stone Tree Legend.” It tells the story of a tree that grew from a stone. One day the tree, named Poso Kofuni, gave birth to a male and female who were the first Seediq people. Children taught by the two performers took to the stage to perform a play about their origin.

    Kumu Walis
    Seediq Dancer
    It became a journey of discovery for myself—through music and songs related to the Seediq people. I felt that during the cooperation process, I learned a lot. Our elders would tell us to hurry and ask them, otherwise they would forget. After hearing that, I thought it was really a shame. It made me feel sad.

    The 30-year-old Weng Chih-wen is the father of three children. He makes a living from his performances. Between work, family and interviewing tribal elders, he has no free time. But he lives in fear that tribal elders are slowly disappearing and he won’t be able to record all they know. He neglects day-to-day life while searching for the roots of culture and ethnicity.

    Weng Chih-wen
    Seediq Dance Choreographer
    It was especially difficult during the first half year because of fuel and other costs. But no matter what, for three whole months we did it and ate just one braised soy egg for breakfast.

    After the Wushe Incident that is depicted in the movie “Seediq Bale,” many Seediq songs and dances were forbidden by the Japanese government. With the passing of time, many young people moved away and stopped learning the traditional ways. Now, young indigenous adults want to find their roots and are passing what they learn to the newest generation. They hope their ancestors will see that their children and grandchildren are proud of their traditions.
    中文 Chinese  
    樂舞 薪火 賽德克 (下)

    上禮拜的專題,我們看到許多賽德克族的年輕人 正在努力的為逐漸消失的傳統文化努力 以做傳承 這個禮拜 我們將帶您做更深入的了解。

    年輕這一輩 面臨傳統文化消逝 自我價值混淆的矛盾 從老人家身上尋根 成了最直接的方法翁志文教孩子跳舞 其實就是他八年多來 一點一滴從耆老身上汲取而來的 賽德克傳統。

    [[賽德克族舞蹈工作者 翁志文]]
    “你只要到部落 (幾乎)沒有人在唱這些傳統的歌了 真的很可惜”

    翁志文一有空就往部落跑 除了樂舞表演工作之外 田野調查幾乎占了他生活的大宗 從記錄到學會 卻是段漫長的路。

    [[賽德克族舞蹈工作者 翁志文]]
    “老人家他不是不會教 而是說我們以前本來就沒有 (刻意)教這個東西 所以你只能在他旁邊聽 回去之後你就是慢慢練習”

    [[南投縣仁愛鄉合作村耆老 何徐秀菊]]
    “我要講一些話 從我小的時候 我母親教我唱傳統歌謠 我非常認真的學習 我現在已經老了 不要看我年紀老了 我依然可以唱出 母親所教的傳統歌謠”

    [[原住民舞蹈工作者 拉貝]]
    “我感覺得到她 她已經用全身力量在講這個故事 所以我看到老人家 想要告訴我們這些小朋友 他們以前的故事 我很感動”

    電影賽德克巴萊中 歡樂婚禮的口簧琴配樂 就是翁志文在多年前 從長輩那兒學來的 並且自己吹奏記錄 可以說是是道道地地 原汁原味的賽德克音樂。

    [[賽德克族舞蹈工作者 翁志文]]
    “我的口簧琴那一首歌 本來就已經有錄好了 一直到前幾年有出版之後 剛好被魏導相中 就看中這個旋律 口簧琴的方式 他覺得那個片段 很適合放這個音樂的素材 才把它放到電影裡面去的”

    [[賽德克族舞蹈工作者 翁志文]]
    “(初期以為)口簧琴就是這樣 我還以為是那樣子 後來我們去田調 去問這些老人家 他就說口簧琴不是只有那樣子 所以比較困難的是說 怎麼去表達 口簧琴真正的涵義”

    小桌子上擺滿了各式各樣的口簧琴 國內外各族群的都有 就像是個小規模的口簧琴展覽。

    [[賽德克族舞蹈工作者 翁志文]]
    “我們賽德克族的口簧琴 有竹片的口簧琴 還有單簧的 單簧的銅片 它們是銅片 再來就是二簧 再來就是四簧 這邊挖個洞 然後把銅片放在竹子上面 再壓個竹子 再把它捆起來 讓它產生震動 嘴巴就是音箱 產生共鳴發出來的聲音”

    因為電影熱潮 而成為流行語的「出草」 其實在賽德克族人眼中 是很神聖的事 翁志文蒐集而來的獵首笛 不曾吹過 因為他必須遵循傳統gaya的規範。

    [[賽德克族舞蹈工作者 翁志文]]
    “我們的gaya的規範裡面是說 小朋友跟女人 是不可以碰這個東西的 只有獵過人頭才會吹這個笛子”

    因為只有獵過人頭才能吹這笛子 所以我們無緣知道這獵首笛的樂音。

    在採訪的這一天 剛好翁志文在埔里有演出活動 台上的他賣力跳唱著祖先的歌舞 離開舞台後 教孩子跳舞時 也會把老人家的祖訓傳給孩子。

    2011年6月 翁志文和姑牧瓦歷斯聯手合作 在埔里演出賽德克族的《石樹傳說》說的是祖先從半石半樹的 波索康夫尼誕生的故事他們所教的小朋友也一起登台演自己族群的起源格外有感覺。

    [[賽德克族舞蹈工作者 姑牧瓦歷斯]]
    “變成我自己也會去找我自己 賽德克族相關的音樂 還有歌曲 所以我覺得在合作過程中 我自己學到滿多的 老人家就會說 你趕快過來問我 不然我都要忘記了 聽到之後 是有覺得非常地可惜 也覺得滿難過的”

    但不滿三十歲的翁志文 已經是三個孩子的父親 平日靠表演傳統歌舞維生 工作 家庭 訪視部落老人 幾乎壓得他喘不過氣來 但他深怕老人家日漸凋零 來不及記錄更多傳統 顧不得生活 也要追尋自己血液中 最原始的文化痕跡。

    [[賽德克族舞蹈工作者 翁志文]]
    “尤其是開始做的半年 我覺得那個滿辛苦的 因為不管是油費或是一些費用 我們就是為了做這個 整整三個月 早上只吃一顆滷蛋”

    霧社事件之後 賽德克族許多祭典歌舞 在日治時期幾乎成了禁忌 隨著時代流轉 許多文化傳統 已不復返 如今 部落年輕人想彌補文化的缺憾 努力想搭一座傳承的橋 希望讓祖靈看到孩子們 重拾傳統的驕傲。
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